Providing Network Professionals The Edge

About Behzad Munir

Behzad Munir, P.Eng, is a Voice Solutions Consultant working in Toronto, Canada

About Behzad Munir

Behzad Munir, P.Eng, is a Voice Solutions Consultant working in Toronto, Canada

Here are my most recent posts

Voice Fundamentals – Human Speech Frequency

The mechanics behind human voice production are unique and in many ways quantifiable.  Understanding human speech and its perceived properties are an … [Read more...]

Cisco IP Phone TFTP File Look Up Order

Once a Cisco IP Phone has received its IP address, VLAN information and TFTP IP address information (see IP Phone Boot Process article) its next … [Read more...]

Original Selsius IP Phone

Selsius Systems was a telecommunications company in Dallas, Texas which developed and marketed some of the first IP telephony products in the … [Read more...]

How to Configure a VWIC2-2MFT-T1/E1 Card on a 2800 Series Router

Enter the following command to determine which WIC slot your VWIC2-2MFT-T1/E1 is installed in: show diag The output of this command will appear … [Read more...]

Cisco 2800 Series ISRs – 2801, 2811, 2821, 2851 Features

The Cisco 2800 series of Integrated Services router platforms are one of my favorites due to their flexibility in accommodating a host of new and … [Read more...]

Phone Signalling: On Hook, Dial Tone, Pulse, DTMF

Supervisory signalling, Information signalling or Address signalling, these are the groupings to define the various states, tones and methods to setup … [Read more...]

The Four Enemies of Voice and Video Traffic

It is the never ending battle of real time voice and video traffic against the following evil foursome.  Here is a quick reference of who/what they … [Read more...]

Cisco Gatekeeper Bandwidth Allocation

A Cisco Gatekeeper has a pre-defined bandwidth number which it allocates per call (based on the CODEC being used). These values are not typically … [Read more...]

SIP Response Codes

SIP Response codes are a means of communication for the Session Initiation Protocol.  They are pre-defined responses to SIP Requests which have been … [Read more...]

Cisco IP Phone SCCP (Skinny) Call States

Cisco IP Phone SCCP (Skinny) Call States This is a list of SCCP call states sent by CUCM to SCCP endpoints: 1—Off Hook 2—On Hook 3—Ring … [Read more...]